Dr. Christopher J. Longo - PhD
- Health Policy and Management
Dr. Longo has over 30 years of industry/government experience in clinical research, economic evaluation, and market access strategies for pharmaceuticals. He has published both clinical and economic research in a number of therapeutic areas including: diabetes, cancer, sepsis, and central nervous system disorders.
Dr. Longo’s research interests include the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the public/private mix in the financing of healthcare, and the evaluation of factors influencing patients’ financial burden for health care services, particularly in the area of cancer.
- Ph.D. Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
- M.Sc. Physiology, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario
- B.A. Economics, Faculty of Arts, York University
My primary program of research investigates efficiency and equity issues in health care by using health economics tools to address policy questions. Much of this work has been in chronic and critical illness, and as I am not a clinician, involves collaboration with researchers who have appropriate clinical expertise. I have undertaken research projects examining pharmaceutical innovation and pricing, and issues related to equity of access within this industry. My current research focus examines the costs and economic evaluation of cancer programs/interventions throughout the cancer journey, with the intent of informing policy decision making.
Dr. Longo has consulted with numerous provincial and federal agencies related to economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals including: the Canadian Agency for Drugs & Technology in Health, Cancer Care Ontario, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care and the National Cancer Institute of Canada. He is currently a member of the Ontario Steering Committee for Cancer Drugs providing economic submission reviews. Dr. Longo was the past chair of Rx&D’s (Canada’s Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies) Health Economic Working Group from 2002-2004.
Dr. Longo has also acted as an expert advisor to a number of Rx&D committees between 1997-2005. Dr. Longo has undertaken reviews for the journals Pharmacoeconomics, Medical Care, Canadian Medical Association Journal, Supportive Care in Cancer, Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research, Journal of Palliative Care, British Medical Journal Open, International Journal of Equity in Health, and Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation.
Fitch, M.I., Nicoll, I., Lockwood, G., Loiselle, C.G., Longo, C.J., Newton, L. (2021). Exploring the relationships between Income and Emotional/Practical Concerns and Help-seeking by Older Adult Cancer Survivors: A secondary analysis. J Geriatric Oncology, On-line DOI: 10.1016/j.jgo.2021.11.007 ; IF 3.599 (2020)
Maity, T., Longo, C.J. (2021). Pragmatic pharmacoeconomic analyses by using post-market adverse drug reaction reports: an illustration using infliximab, adalimumab, and the Canada Vigilance Adverse Reaction database. BMC Health Services Research, On-line DOI: 10.1186/s12913-021-07260-z ; IF 2.655 (2020)
Nicol, I., Lockwood, G., Longo, C.J., Loisell, C.G., Fitch, M.I. (2021). Relationships between Canadian adult cancer survivors’ annual household income and emotional/practical concerns, help-seeking and unmet needs. Health and Social Care in the Community, DOI: 10.1111/hsc.13536 ; IF 2.821 (2020)
Khan, M.N., Hueniken, K., Eng, L., Mirshams, M., Khan, K., Simpson, C., Liu, G., Xu, W., Longo, C.J., Goldstein, D.P., Ringash, J., Martino, R., Hansen, A., de Almeida, J.R. (2021). Out-of-Pocket Costs Associated with Head and Neck Cancer Treatment. Cancer Reports, https://doi-org.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/10.1002/cnr2.1528; IF NA
Fitch, M.I., Longo, C.J. (2021). Emerging understanding about the impact of financial toxicity related to cancer: Canadian perspectives. Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 37(7), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soncn.2021.151174 ; IF 1.33 (2019)
Longo, C.J., Fitch, M.I. (2021). Unequal distribution of economic burden among people with cancer and its impact on access to care: A current review. Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, 15(3) pp 157-161, DOI: 10.1097/spc.0000000000000561 ; IF 2.302 (2020)
Oberoi, D., Longo, C.J., Reed, E., Landmann, J., Piedalue, K., Carlson, L.E. (2021). Cost-utility of Group vs. Individual Acupuncture for Cancer-related Pain using Quality Adjusted Life Years in a Non-Inferiority trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, (Online May 2021, no print version to date) https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2020.0386 ; IF 2.579 (2020)
Fitch, M.I., Sharp, L., Hanly, P., Longo, C.J. (2021). Experiencing financial toxicity associated with cancer in publicly funded healthcare systems: A systematic review of qualitative studies. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. (Online March 2021, no print version to date) DOI: 10.1007/s11764-021-01025-7 ; IF 4.442 (2020)
Longo, C.J., Fitch, M.I., Loree, J.M., Carlson, L.E., Turner, D., Cheung, W., Gopaul, D., Ellis, J., Ringash, J., Mathews, M., Wright, J., Stevens, C., D’Souza, D., Urquart, R., Maity, T., Balderrama, F., Haddad, E. (2021). Patient and family financial burden associated with cancer treatment in Canada: A National study. Support Care Cancer 26(9), pp 3377-3386 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05907-x ; IF 2.635 (2020)
Tremblay, D., Poder, T., Vasiliadis, H., Touati, N., Fortin, B., Lévesque, L., Longo, C.J. (2020). Translation and cultural adaptation of the Patient Self-Administered Financial Effects (P-SAFE) questionnaire to assess the financial burden of cancer in French-speaking patients. Healthcare 8(4) 366, DOI: 10.3390/healthcare8040366 ; IF 2.645 (2020)
Milinkovic, D., Hurley, J., Sweetman, A., Feeney, D., Tarride, J.E., Longo, C.J., McCracken, S. (2020). Unrecognized Assets Created by Public Sector Investments in Health and Social Services. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management. 33(4), pp 409-426 https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBAFM-04-2020-0044 ; IF 0.39 (2019)
Fitch, M.I., Longo, C.J., Chan, R.J. (2020). Cancer patients’ perspectives on financial burden in a universal health care system: Analysis of qualitative data from participants from 20 provincial cancer centers in Canada. Patient Education and Counseling 104(4), pp 903-910, DOI: 10.1016/j.pec.2020.08.013 ; IF 2.94 (2020)
Longo, C.J., Fitch, M.I., Banfield, L., Hanly, P., Yabroff, F.R., Sharp, L. (2020). Financial toxicity associated with a cancer diagnosis in publicly funded healthcare countries: A systematic review. Support Care Cancer 28, pp 4645–4665. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05620-9 ; IF 2.635 (2020)
Maity, T., Longo, C.J. (2020). Adverse drug reactions in Canada in 2009-2018: Insights from the Canada Vigilance database. Healthcare Quarterly 23(1), pp 40-46; IF 0.52 (2020)
Balderrama, F., Schwartz, L., Longo, C.J. (2020) When are pharmaceuticals priced fairly? A framework for an ethical pricing of pharmaceuticals. Healthcare Analysis 28, pp 121–136, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10728-020-00394-x ; IF 2.524 (2020)
Fitch, M.I., Longo, C.J. (2020). Exploring out of pocket costs for cancer patients and quality of life : Using a qualitative approach. SAGE Research Methods Cases : Medicine and Health (Online only, no print version to date) https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781529735529 ; IF NA
Grignon, M., Longo, C.J., Marchildon, G.P., Officer, S. (2019). The 2018 decision to establish an Advisory Council on adding pharmaceuticals to universal health coverage in Canada. Health Policy 124(1), pp7-11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2019.10.006 ; IF 2.98 (2020) & DSB-45
Grignon, M., Longo, C.J., Marchildon, G.P., Officer, S. (2019). Putting National Pharmacare on the Federal Agenda: Creation of an Advisory Council. Health Reform Observer – Observatoire des Réformes de Santé 7 (2), Article 4 (Online August 2019, no print version to date), https://doi.org/10.13162/hro-ors.v7i2.3817 ; IF NA
Fitch, M., Longo, C.J. (2018). Exploring the impact of out-of-pocket costs on the quality of life of Canadian cancer patients. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology 36(5), pp 582-596, https://doi.org/10.1080/07347332.2018.1486937 ; IF 1.269 (2020)
Longo, C.J., Dunn, S., Harrold, J., Smith, G.N. (2018). Repeat Caesarian section and neonatal age effects on costs and outcomes in Ontario. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Canada 40(12), pp 1600-1607 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2018.04.010 ; IF NA
Jung, Y., Tompa, E., Longo, C.J., Kalcevich, C., Kim, J., Song, C., Demers, P. (2017). The economic burden of bladder cancer due to occupational exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60(3), pp 217-225, DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000001242 ; IF 2.162 (2020)
Balderrama, F., Longo, C.J. (2017) Design of Effective Interventions for Smoking Cessation through Financial and Non-Financial Incentives. Healthcare Management Forum 30(6), pp 289-292. DOI:10.1177/0840470417714490; IF 0.961 (2020)
Barr, N. G., Longo, C. J., Embrett, M. G., Mulvale, G. M., Nguyen, T., Randall, G. E. (2017) The Transition from Youth to Adult Mental Health Services and the Economic Impact on Youth and their Families. Healthcare Management Forum 30(6), pp 283-288 DOI: 10.1177/0840470417709579 ; IF 0.961 (2020)
Park, A., Tu, K., Ray, J., Barbaran-Henfrey, K., Bartsch, E., Berger, H., Campbell, D., Chiu, M., De Souza, L., Guttmann, A., Handa, M., Longo, C.J., Maguire, J., Meloche, J., Melamed, N., Moumanis, P., Roukema, H., Roy, J., Sgro, M., Smith, G., Urquia, M., Vanderkooy, P., Watson, W., Watts, N., Young, J.(2017). Differences in growth of Canadian children compared to the WHO Child Growth Standards. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 31(5), pp 452-462 DOI: 10.1111/ppe.12377 ; IF 3.980 (2020)
Schwartz, R., Haji, F., Babayan, A., Longo, C.J., Ferrence, R. (2017) Public Health Policy in Support of Insurance Coverage for Smoking Cessation Treatment. Healthcare Policy 24 (4), pp 56-68, DOI: 10.12927/hcpol.2017.25098 ; IF NA
Martino, R., Ringash, J., Durkin, L., Greco, E., Hui-Huang, S., Xu, W., Longo, C.J. (2017). Feasibility of Assessing Patient Health Benefits and Incurred Costs from Early Dysphagia Intervention during and immediately following Chemoradiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer. Current Oncology 24(6), pp e466-e477, http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/co.24.3543 ; IF 3.677 (2020)
Cheung, K., Kaur, M.N., Tolliver, T., Longo, C.J., Naam, N.H., Thoma, A. (2017). A tale of two healthcare systems: Cost-utility analysis of open carpal tunnel release in Canada and the United States. Plastic Surgery 25 (1), pp 7-13, DOI: 10.1177/2292550317693817 ; IF 0.947 (2020)
Sekercioglu, N., Thabane, L., Diaz-Martinez, J.P., Nesrallah, G., Longo, C.J., Busse, J.W., Akhtar-Danesh, N., Agarwal, A., Al-Khalifah, R., Iorio, A., Guyatt, G.H. (2016). Comparative effectiveness of phosphate binders in patients with chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 8;11(6), e0156891(Online June 2016, no print version to date), https://doi-org.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/10.1371/journal.pone.0156891 ; IF 3.24 (2020)
Longo, C.J., Fitch M., Grignon, M., McAndrew, A. (2016). Understanding the full breadth of cancer-related patient costs in Ontario: A qualitative exploration. Support Care Cancer 24(11), pp 4541-4548 ; IF 2.635 (2020)
Mulvale, G., Kutcher, S., Randall, G., Wakefield, P., Longo, C.J., Abelson, J., Winkup, J., Fast, M. (2016). Do National Frameworks Help in Local Policy Development? Lessons from the Yukon about the Evergreen Child and Youth Mental Health Framework. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health 34(4), pp 111-128 ; IF 0.62 (2020)
Urquia, M., Berger, H., Ray, J., Barbaran-Henfrey, K., Bismilla, S., Bocking A., Booth, M., Campbell, D., Chiu, M., Colizza, L., de Groh, M., De Souza, L., Glazier, R., Guttmann, A., Handa, M., Hillard, R., Longo, C.J., Maguire, J., Moumanis, P., Park, A., Roukema, H., Roy, J., Sgro, M., Smith, G., Tu, K., Vanderkooy, P., Watson, W., Watts, N. (2015). Risk of adverse outcomes among infants of immigrant women according to birth-weight curves tailored to maternal world region of origin. CMAJ 187(1), pp e32-e40 DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.140748 ; IF 8.3 (2020)
Di Rezze, B., Nguyen, T., Barr, N., Mulvale, G., Longo, C.J., Randall, G. (2015). A scoping review of evaluated interventions addressing developmental transitions for youth with mental health disorders. Child Care Health and Development 42(2), pp 176-187, DOI: 10.1111/cch.12306 ; IF 2.508 (2020)
Longo, C.J. (2015). Cost-sharing for health care services: An alternative strategy for pharmaceutical reimbursement in Ontario. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology, 22(3), pp e245-e250 ; IF NA
Embrett, M., Randall, G., Longo, C.J., Nguyen, T., Mulvale, G. (2015). Effectiveness of Health System Services and Programs for Youth to Adult Transitions in Mental Health Care: A Systematic Review of Academic Literature. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 43, pp 259-269, DOI 10.1007/s10488-015-0638-9; IF 2.847 (2020)
Lehoux, P., Daudelin, G., Williams-Jones, B., Longo, C.J. (2014) How do business model and health technology design influence each other? Insights from a longitudinal case study of three academic spin-offs. Research Policy, 43(6): 1025-1038
Longo, C.J. Economic evaluation of a public health strategy: An examination of the human papillomavirus vaccine. (2013) Int J Behavioral and Healthcare Research, V4 (2): 158-168
Hivon, M., Lehoux, P., Longo, C.J., Williams-Jones, B., Miller, F.A. (2013). Building business relationships through the web: How medical technology companies enroll stakeholders in innovation development and uptake. International Review of Social Research, V3(2): 89-112.
Miller, F.A., Mentzakis, E., Axler, R., Lehoux, P., French, M., Tarride, J.E., Wodchis, W., Wilson, B., Longo, C.J., Bytautas, J., Slater, B. (2013). Adjudicating the returns on investment from basic biomedical research: A choice experiment of Canadian researchers and lay-publics. Academic Medicine, V88 (4): 1-8.
Longo, C.J., Grignon, M. (2012) The value of fixed-reimbursement insurance against cancer related losses: Simulations to investigate state-dependent utility. Global Business and Economics Review, V14 (4): 322-337.
Mittman, N., Evans W.K, Rocchi, A., Longo, C.J., Au, H.J., Husereau, D., Leighl, N., Isogai, P.K., Krahn, M., Peacock, S., Marshall, D., Coyle, D., Mayfair-Taylor, S.C., Jacobs, P., Oh, P.I. (2012). Guidelines for the economic evaluation of health technologies: Special guidance for oncology products in Canada. Value in Health, V15(3): 580-585
Longo, C.J., Bereza, B.G. (2011). A comparative analysis of monthly ‘out-of-pocket’ costs for breast cancer patients versus other common cancers in Ontario, Canada. Current Oncology, V18 (1): e1-e8
Longo, C.J. (2011). Encouraging Pharmaceutical Innovation to meet the needs of both developed and developing countries. International Journal of Development Issues, V10(1): 92-101
Guo, Y., Longo, C.J., Xie, R., Wen, S., Walker, M.C., Sun,Z., Smith, G.N. (2011) Cost-effectiveness of transdermal nitroglycerin use in preterm labour. Value in Health, V14(2): 240-246
Longo, C.J. (2010). Equitable access to healthcare services and income replacement for cancer: Is critical illness insurance a help or a hindrance? Healthcare Policy, 5(4): e132-e138.
Longo, C.J. (2010). Global pharmaceutical pricing strategies: Profit implications of price discounting. International Journal of Economics and Business Research, V2 (6): 447-460.
Hopkins, R.B., Goeree, R., Longo, C.J. (2010). Estimating the National Wage Loss from Cancer in Canada. Current Oncology, 17(2): 40-49.
Bourne, L., Chaudhary, R., Ford, D., Hagemeyer, O., Longo, C.J., Meertens, E., & Deber, R.B. At Any Price? Paying for New Cancer Drugs. In: Case Studies in Canadian Health Policy and Management 2nd Edition, Edited by Raisa B. Deber and Catherine L. Mah, UofT Press April 2014 [ISBN: 978-1-4426-0996-9]
Bonnett, C., Longo, C.J., Poon, Y., & Deber, R.B. Ask Your Doctor: Direct–to-Consumer Advertising of Prescription Medicines. In: Case Studies in Canadian Health Policy and Management 2nd Edition, Edited by Raisa B. Deber and Catherine L. Mah, UofT Press April 2014 [ISBN: 978-1-4426-0996-9]
Baranek, P., Campbell, J.A., Kuluski, K., Longo, C.J., Morton-Chang, F., Spalding, K., Gray, C.S., Teplitsky, F., Thomas, R.J., Watkins, J., Wojak, J. & Deber, R.B. Long-Term Care Reform in Ontario: “The Long Delivery.” In: Case Studies in Canadian Health Policy and Management 2nd Edition, Edited by Raisa B. Deber and Catherine L. Mah, UofT Press April 2014 [ISBN: 978-1-4426-0996-9]